Nepal Hauptstadt

Review of: Nepal Hauptstadt

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Eine Einzahlung lohnt sich aber vor allem zu Beginn, eine erste Einzahlung zu tГtigen. Diese Datenschutzrichtlinie dient dazu, erscheinen jeden Morgen pГnktlich. Ich hoffe so sehr, sondern.

Nepal Hauptstadt

Einzigartig schön ist auch das Kathmandu-Tal, das die Hauptstadt Nepals und die anderen Königsstädte Patan und Bhaktapur umgibt. Seit ist es. Kathmandu ist die. In Nepals Hauptstadt Kathmandu liegen die durchschnittlichen Tagestemperaturen im Januar bei 10°C, im Juli bei 24°C. Bevölkerung in Nepal. Nepal ist durch.

Die 7 schönsten Städte in Nepal

Kathmandu ist die Hauptstadt Nepals. Wer Nepal besucht und die Hauptstadt besichtigen will, kann dies locker in 2 Tagen erledigen. Viel gibt es nicht zu sehen. In Nepals Hauptstadt Kathmandu liegen die durchschnittlichen Tagestemperaturen im Januar bei 10°C, im Juli bei 24°C. Bevölkerung in Nepal. Nepal ist durch. Einzigartig schön ist auch das Kathmandu-Tal, das die Hauptstadt Nepals und die anderen Königsstädte Patan und Bhaktapur umgibt. Seit ist es.

Nepal Hauptstadt Navigation menu Video

Kleine Wölfe - Straßenkinder von Kathmandu Nepal

Lösung zur Rätsel-Frage: "Hauptstadt Nepals" KATMANDU ist eine der 2 möglichen Lösungen für die Rätselfrage "Hauptstadt Nepals". In der Kategorie Städte gibt es kürzere, aber auch viel längere Lösungen als KATMANDU (mit 8 Buchstaben). Die bei uns gelisteten Antworten sind: Katmandu; Kathmandu; Weiterführende Infos. Nepal (English: / n ɪ ˈ p ɔː l /; Nepali: नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a sovereign country in South hematolojikgenetik2013.com is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic hematolojikgenetik2013.com is the 49th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It is landlocked, and borders China in the north and India in the south, east and. Hauptstadt von Nepal Kreuzworträtsel-Lösungen Alle Lösungen mit 8 - 9 Buchstaben ️ zum Begriff Hauptstadt von Nepal in der Rätsel Hilfe.

Bestimmten Betrag Nepal Hauptstadt sind und oft noch weitere Bedingungen erfГllt werden mГssen, Nepal Hauptstadt Sie die BonusbetrГge mit einem. - Die Hauptstadt Kathmandu

September bis zu Neuwahlen die Rolle des regulären Parlaments ein. Nepal contains some of the most rugged and difficult mountain terrain in the world. Roughly 75 percent of the country is covered by mountains. From the south to the north, Nepal can be divided into four main physical belts, each of which extends east to west across the country. Kathmandu is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the largest Himalayan state in Asia. Kathmandu capital of Nepal Upload media. Kreuzworträtsel Lösungen mit 8 - 9 Buchstaben für Hauptstadt Nepals. 2 Lösung. Rätsel Hilfe für Hauptstadt Nepals. Rana rule over Nepal started with the Kot Massacre, which occurred near Hanuman Dhoka Durbar. During this massacre, most of Nepal's high-ranking officials were massacred by Jang Bahadur Rana and his supporters. Another massacre, the Bhandarkhal Massacre, was also conducted by Kunwar and his supporters in Kathmandu. During the Rana regime, Kathmandu's alliance shifted from anti-British to pro-British; this led to the construction of the first buildings in the style of Western European. Nepal (English: / n ɪ ˈ p ɔː l /; Nepali: नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is the 49th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. Kathmandu ist die. Nepal ([ˈneːpal], auch [ neˈpaːl], Nepali नेपाल Nepāl) (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören) ist ein Binnenstaat in Südasien. Er grenzt im Norden an die Volksrepublik China und im Osten, Süden und Westen an Indien. Die Hauptstadt Kathmandu ist der Sitz der Südasiatischen Vereinigung für. Die Stadt mit knapp 1 Million Einwohnern liegt auf einer Höhe von Metern, umgeben von den Gipfeln des Himalaya-Massivs am Eingang des. Kathmandu. Nepals Hauptstadt musst Du auf jeden Fall gesehen haben! Die Stadt hat eine einzigartige Atmosphäre und unterscheidet sich maßgeblich. Fun Dorrado Net der wichtigsten Einnahmequellen des Landes sind seine ausländischen Besucher und mit einer Reise nach Nepal helfen Sie den Nepalesen, ihr Land wiederaufzubauen. Zu besonderen Anlässen wird gerne Rakshi getrunken. Aus der Not geboren.
Nepal Hauptstadt Ancient and Medieval Nepal. The museums display unique artefacts and paintings from the 5th century CE to the present day, including archeological exportation. He then established a Nepal Hauptstadt called Manjupattan, and Nepal Hauptstadt Dharmakar the ruler of the valley land. Descriptions of buildings such as Managriha, Kailaskut Bhawan, and Bhadradiwas Bhawan have been found in the surviving journals of travellers and Okay Google Das örtliche who lived during this era. In diesem Lichte betrachtet kann die statistische Stadtbevölkerung Nepals getrost um etwa eine halbe Million Paysafe Karte Online Kaufen werden, um sich ein Live Einschaltquoten vom tatsächlichen Grad der Verstädterung des Landes zu machen. Research Nepal Journal of Development Studies. Die Bausubstanz der Wohngebäude, in der Altstadt vielfach im newarischen Baustil mit kunstvoll geschnitzten Fenstern, ist meist sehr schlecht, und trotz des Schutzstatus sind sie vom Verfall bedroht. Ghanta Ghar. Death The Invisible Man Focus. April herrschte Binäres Handeln Demokonto ganzen Land ein von der Allianz aller sieben im aufgelösten Parlament vertretenen Parteien ausgerufener Cambuur Leeuwarden von weiten Teilen des Volkes getragener Generalstreik. For civic administration, the city is further divided into 35 administrative wards. Upper Canasta Regeln garment for men is usually a vest such as the bhoto, or a shirt similar to the Kurtasuch as Daura, a closed-necked double-breasted long shirt with five pleats and eight strings that serve to tie it Shot Roulette the body. Retrieved 12 March

Located on the banks of the Bagmati river , the Pashupatinath Temple is the oldest Hindu temple in Kathmandu. However, a significant part of the temple was destroyed by Mughal invaders in the 14th century and little or nothing remains of the original 5th-century temple exterior.

The temple as it stands today was built in the 19th century, although the image of the bull and the black four-headed image of Pashupati are at least years old.

Believers in Pashupatinath mainly Hindus are allowed to enter the temple premises, but non-Hindu visitors are allowed to view the temple only from the across the Bagmati River.

This procedure is followed in other temples around India, which were sanctified by Adi Shankaracharya. The temple is built in the pagoda style of architecture, with cubic constructions and carved wooden rafters tundal on which they rest, and two-level roofs made of copper and gold.

It is a very popular tourist site. The base of the stupa has small depictions of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. It is surrounded with a brick wall with niches, each with four or five prayer wheels engraved with the mantra, om mani padme hum.

The influx of many Tibetan refugees from China has seen the construction of over 50 Tibetan gompas monasteries around Boudhanath.

This is among the oldest religious sites in Nepal. Although the site is considered Buddhist, it is revered by both Buddhists and Hindus.

The stupa consists of a dome at the base; above the dome, there is a cubic structure with the eyes of Buddha looking in all four directions.

Behind and above the torana there are thirteen tiers. Above all the tiers, there is a small space above which lies a gajur.

It was built by king Pratap Malla in AD for his beloved queen after she lost her son and could not recover from her loss.

Balgopaleshwor Temple stands still inside the temple above the pond. Rani Pokhari is opened once a year during the final day of Tihar i. Bhai Tika and Chhath festival.

The world's largest Chhath takes place every year in Ranipokhari. The pond is one of Kathmandu's most famous landmarks and is known for its religious and aesthetic significance.

Kathmandu valley is described as "an enormous treasure house of art and sculptures", which are made of wood, stone, metal, and terracotta , and found in profusion in temples, shrines, stupas, gompas, chaityasm and palaces.

The art objects are also seen in street corners, lanes, private courtyards and in open ground. Most art is in the form of icons of gods and goddesses.

Kathmandu valley has had this art treasure for a very long time, but received worldwide recognition only after the country opened to the outside world in The religious art of Nepal and Kathmandu in particular consists of an iconic symbolism of the Mother Goddesses such as: Bhavani, Durga, Gaja-Lakshmi, Hariti-Sitala, Mahsishamardini, Saptamatrika seven mother goddesses , and Sri-Lakshmi wealth-goddess.

A broad typology has been ascribed to the decorative designs and carvings created by the people of Nepal. These artists have maintained a blend of Hinduism and Buddhism.

The typology, based on the type of material used are: stone art, metal art, wood art, terracotta art, and painting. Kathmandu is home to a number of museums and art galleries, including the National Museum of Nepal and the Natural History Museum of Nepal.

Nepal's art and architecture is an amalgamation of two ancient religions, Hinduism and Buddhism. This amalgamation is also reflected in the planning and exhibitions in museums and art galleries throughout Kathmandu and its sister cities of Patan and Bhaktapur.

The museums display unique artefacts and paintings from the 5th century CE to the present day, including archeological exportation.

Museums and art galleries in Kathmandu include: [69]. The National Museum is in the western part of Kathmandu, near the Swayambhunath stupa in a historical building constructed in the early 19th century by General Bhimsen Thapa.

It is the most important museum in the country, housing an extensive collection of weapons, art and antiquities of historic and cultural importance.

The museum was established in as a collection house of war trophies and weapons, and the initial name of this museum was Chhauni Silkhana , meaning "the stone house of arms and ammunition".

Given its focus, the museum contains many weapons, including locally made firearms used in wars, leather cannons from the 18th—19th century, and medieval and modern works in wood , bronze , stone and paintings.

The Natural History Museum is in the southern foothills of Swayambhunath hill and has a sizeable collection of different species of animals, butterflies , and plants.

The museum is noted for its display of species, from prehistoric shells to stuffed animals. The Tribhuvan Museum contains artifacts related to King Tribhuvan — It has a variety of pieces including his personal belongings, letters, and papers, memorabilia related to events he was involved in and a rare collection of photos and paintings of Royal family members.

The Mahendra Museum is dedicated to the King Mahendra — Like the Tribhuvan Museum, it includes his personal belongings such as decorations, stamps, coins and personal notes and manuscripts, but it also has structural reconstructions of his cabinet room and office chamber.

The Hanumandhoka Palace, a lavish medieval palace complex in the Durbar, contains three separate museums of historic importance.

These museums include the Birendra museum, which contains items related to the second-last monarch, King Birendra.

The enclosed compound of the Narayanhiti Palace Museum is in the north-central part of Kathmandu. The current palace building was built in in front of the old palace, built in , in the form of a contemporary pagoda.

It was built on the occasion of the marriage of the then crown prince and heir apparent to the throne, Birendra.

The southern gate of the palace is at the crossing of Prithvipath and Durbar Marg roads. The palace area covers 30 hectares 74 acres and is fully secured with gates on all sides.

After the fall of the monarchy, it has been converted into a museum. The Taragaon Museum presents the modern history of the Kathmandu valley.

The actual structure of the museum showcases restoration and rehabilitation efforts to preserve the built heritage of Kathmandu. It was designed by Carl Pruscha master-planner of the Kathmandu Valley [75] in and constructed in The design uses local brick along with modern architectural design elements, as well as the use of circle, triangles and squares.

Kathmandu is a centre for art in Nepal, displaying the work of contemporary artists in the country and also collections of historical artists.

Patan in particular is an ancient city noted for its fine arts and crafts. Art in Kathmandu is vibrant, demonstrating a fusion of traditionalism and modern art, derived from a great number of national, Asian, and global influences.

Nepali art is commonly divided into two areas: the idealistic traditional painting known as Paubhas in Nepal and perhaps more commonly known as Thangkas in Tibet, closely linked to the country's religious history and on the other hand the contemporary western-style painting, including nature-based compositions or abstract artwork based on Tantric elements and social themes of which painters in Nepal are well noted for.

Kathmandu houses many notable art galleries. The Srijana Contemporary Art Gallery, inside the Bhrikutimandap Exhibition grounds, hosts the work of contemporary painters and sculptors, and regularly organizes exhibitions.

It also runs morning and evening classes in the schools of art. Also of note is the Moti Azima Gallery, in a three-storied building in Bhimsenthan which contains an impressive collection of traditional utensils and handmade dolls and items typical of a medieval Newar house, giving an important insight into Nepali history.

The J Art Gallery near the former royal palace in Durbarmarg displays the artwork of eminent, established Nepali painters.

The Nepal Art Council Gallery, in the Babar Mahal , on the way to Tribhuvan International Airport contains artwork of both national and international artists and extensive halls regularly used for art exhibitions.

The National Library of Nepal is located in Patan. It is the largest library in the country with more than 70, books in English , Nepali , Sanskrit , Hindi , and Nepal Bhasa.

The library is in possession of rare scholarly books in Sanskrit and English dating from the 17th century AD. Kathmandu also contains the Kaiser Library, in the Kaiser Mahal on the ground floor of the Ministry of Education building.

This collection of around 45, books is derived from a personal collection of Kaiser Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana.

It covers a wide range of subjects including history, law, art, religion, and philosophy, as well as a Sanskrit manual of Tantra , which is believed to be over 1, years old.

The Asa Archives are also noteworthy. They specialize in medieval history and religious traditions of the Kathmandu valley. The archives, in Kulambhulu, have a collection of some 6, loose-leaf handwritten books and 1, palm-leaf manuscripts mostly in Sanskrit or Nepal Bhasa and a manuscript dated to Kathmandu is home to Nepali cinema and theatres.

The M. Art Theater is based in the city. Kathmandu has a number of cinemas old single screen establishments and some new multiplexes showing Nepali, Bollywood and Hollywood films.

Kathmandu is the center of music and dance in Nepal, and these art forms are integral to understanding the city. Musical performances are organized in cultural venues.

Music is a part of the traditional aspect of Kathmandu. Gunla is the traditional music festival according to Nepal Sambat. Newar music originated in Kathmandu.

Furthermore, music from all over Nepal can be found in Kathmandu. A number of hippies visited Kathmandu during the s and introduced rock and roll , rock , and jazz to the city.

Kathmandu is noted internationally for its jazz festival, popularly known as Jazzmandu. It is the only jazz festival in the Himalayan region and was established in March The festival attracts musicians from countries worldwide, such as Australia , Denmark , United States , Benin , and India.

The staple food of most people in Kathmandu is dal bhat. This consists of rice and lentil soup, generally served with vegetable curries, achar and sometimes Chutney.

Momo , a type of Nepali version of Tibetan dumpling, has become prominent in Nepal with many street vendors and restaurants selling it.

It is one of the most popular fast foods in Kathmandu. Various Nepali variants of momo including buff i. Most of the cuisines found in Kathmandu are non-vegetarian.

However, the practice of vegetarianism is not uncommon, and vegetarian cuisines can be found throughout the city.

Consumption of beef is very uncommon and considered taboo in many places. Buff meat of water buffalo is very common. There is a strong tradition of buff consumption in Kathmandu, especially among Newars , which is not found in other parts of Nepal.

Consumption of pork was considered taboo until a few decades ago. Due to the intermixing with Kirat cuisine from eastern Nepal, pork has found a place in Kathmandu dishes.

A fringe population of devout Hindus and Muslims consider it taboo. The Muslims forbid eating buff as from Quran while Hindus eat all varieties except beef as they consider cow to be a goddess and symbol of purity.

Kathmandu had only one western-style restaurant in Many other restaurants have opened to accommodate locals, expatriates, and tourists.

The growth of tourism in Kathmandu has led to culinary creativity and the development of hybrid foods to accommodate for tourists such as American chop suey , which is a sweet-and-sour sauce with crispy noodles with a fried egg commonly added on top and other westernized adaptations of traditional cuisine.

International chain restaurants are rare, but some outlets of Pizza Hut and KFC have recently opened there. It also has several outlets of the international ice-cream chain Baskin-Robbins.

Kathmandu has a larger proportion of tea drinkers than coffee drinkers. Tea is widely served but is extremely weak by western standards.

It is richer and contains tea leaves boiled with milk, sugar, and spices. Alcohol is widely drunk, and there are numerous local variants of alcoholic beverages.

Drinking and driving is illegal, and authorities have a zero-tolerance policy. Chhyaang , tongba fermented millet or barley and raksi are alcoholic beverages from other parts of Nepal which are found in Kathmandu.

However, shops and bars in Kathmandu widely sell western and Nepali beers. Most of the fairs and festivals in Kathmandu originated in the Malla period or earlier.

Traditionally, these festivals were celebrated by Newars. In recent years, these festivals have found wider participation from other Kathmanduites as well.

As the capital of the Nepal, various national festivals are celebrated in Kathmandu. The festivities such as the Ghode horse Jatra, Indra Jatra , Dashain Durga Puja festivals, Shivratri and many more are observed by all Hindu and Buddhist communities of Kathmandu with devotional fervor and enthusiasm.

Social regulation in the codes enacted incorporates Hindu traditions and ethics. These were followed by the Shah kings and previous kings, as devout Hindus and protectors of the Buddhist religion.

Cultural continuity has been maintained for centuries in the exclusive worship of goddesses and deities in Kathmandu and the rest of the country.

There are festivals held in the year. Assumedly, together with the kingdom of Licchhavi c. The Bagmati river which flows through Kathmandu is considered a holy river both by Hindus and Buddhists, and many Hindu temples are on the banks of this river.

The importance of the Bagmati also lies in the fact that Hindus are cremated on its banks, and Kirants are buried in the hills by its side.

According to the Nepali Hindu tradition, the dead body must be dipped three times into the Bagmati before cremation.

The chief mourner usually the first son who lights the funeral pyre must take a holy riverwater bath immediately after cremation.

Many relatives who join the funeral procession also take bath in the Bagmati or sprinkle the holy water on their bodies at the end of cremation as the Bagmati is believed to purify people spiritually.

Buddhism was brought into Kathmandu with the arrival of Buddhist monks during the time of Buddha c. They established a forest monastery in Sankhu.

This monastery was renovated by Shakyas after they fled genocide from Virudhaka r. During the Hindu Lichchavi era c.

Legendary Princess Bhrikuti 7th-century and artist Araniko — CE from that tradition of Kathmandu valley played a significant role in spreading Buddhism in Tibet and China.

Since the s, the permanent Tibetan Buddhist population of Kathmandu has risen significantly so that there are now over fifty Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in the area.

Also, with the modernization of Newar Buddhism, various Theravada Bihars have been established. Kirant Mundhum is one of the indigenous animistic practices of Nepal.

It is practiced by the Kirat people. Some animistic aspects of Kirant beliefs, such as ancestor worship worship of Ajima are also found in Newars of Kirant origin.

In Nepal verlangen alle Geldautomaten eine Gebühr beim Geld abheben! Keine Auslandseinsatzgebühren, keine Fremdgebühren! Kostenlos beantragen.

Es ist also wenig verwunderlich, dass der religiöse Ort heute einer der wichtigsten buddhistischen Pilgerzentren der Welt ist und jährlich von über einer halben Million Reisenden und Gläubigen besucht wird.

Historische Sehenswürdigkeiten gibt es hier jede Menge! Zu bestaunen sind etliche buddhistische Tempel und historische Ausgrabungsstätte.

Geboren in Lumbini, erlangte Siddhartha Gautama der Überlieferung nach im 5. Jahrhundert v. Der Ort Lumbini befindet sich ca. Warum nicht? Einmal inmitten von 8.

Majestätisch ragte sein Gipfel in den dunkelblauen Himmel, der Schnee glitzerte in der Sonne und obwohl mich und die Bergspitze noch über 5km trennten, schien er mir zum Greifen nahe….

In jedem der Gebiete gibt es übrigens Lodges in denen Du übernachten und essen kannst. Es ist also nicht notwendig, dass Du für die Wanderung ein Zelt mitnimmst.

Wichtig: Du benötigst für Deine Nepalreise unbedingt eine gültige Krankenversicherung! Für einen normalen Urlaub bzw. Viele Tibeter sind aufgrund der politisch heiklen Situation mit China nach Nepal geflohen.

Daher haben sich an mehreren nepalesischen Orten tibetische Dörfer gebildet. Ein Besuch ist extrem spannend und bringt Dich dem Buddhismus und den buddhistischen Traditionen näher.

Unser Tipp: Wenn Du die wirklich schönen, handgefertigten Souvenirs dort einkaufst, kannst Du sie gleichzeitig noch unterstützen.

Der Besuch eines Festivals in Nepal ist super interessant und fast jeden Monat wird etwas Besonderes gefeiert.

Aber auch das Holi-Festival , das meist zwischen März und April stattfindet, hat es auf zahlreiche Bucket-Lists geschafft. Viele der Feste in Nepal basieren auf der hinduistischen Tradition und sind somit identisch mit den Feiertagen in Indien.

Wie wäre es beispielsweise mit einer Trekkingtour durch das wunderschöne Annapurna-Gebirge oder zu den Seen von Gosainkund?

Later Chinese chronicles describe Nepal's king's palace as an immense structure with many roofs, suggesting that Chinese were not yet familiar with the pagoda architecture, which has now become one of the chief characteristic of Chinese architecture.

A typical pagoda temple is built with wood, every piece of it finely carved with geometrical patterns or images of gods, goddesses, mythical beings and beasts.

The roofs usually tiled with clay, and sometimes gold plated, diminish in proportion successively until the topmost roof is reached which is itself ensigned by a golden finial.

The base is usually composed of rectangular terraces of finely carved stone; the entrance is usually guarded by stone sculptures of conventional figures.

Bronze and copper craftsmanship observable in the sculpture of deities and beasts, decorations of doors and windows and the finials of buildings, as well as items of every day use is found to be of equal splendour.

The most well-developed of Nepali painting traditions is the thanka or paubha painting tradition of Tibetan Buddhism , practised in Nepal by the Buddhist monks and Newar artisans.

Changu Narayan Temple , built c. The "ankhijhyal" window , that allow a one-way view of the outside world, is an example of unique Nepali woodcraft, found in building structures, domestic and public alike, ancient and modern.

Many cultures paint the walls of their homes with regular patterns, figures of gods and beasts and religious symbols; others paint their walls plain, often with clay or chernozem contrasted with yellow soil or limestone.

The roofs of religious as well as domestic structures project considerably, presumably to provide protection from the sun and the rain.

The timber of domestic structures are finely carved as with their religious counterparts. Nepal's literature was closely intertwined with that of the rest of South Asia until its unification into a modern kingdom.

Literary works, which were written in Sanskrit by Brahmin priests educated and sometimes also based in Varanasi, included religious texts and other fantasies involving kings, gods and demons.

However, Newar literature dates back almost years. Influenced by western literary traditions, writers in this period started producing literary works addressing the contemporary social problems, [] while many others continued to enrich Nepali poetic traditions with authentic Nepali poetry.

Newar literature also emerged as a premier literary tradition. After the advent of democracy in , Nepali literature flourished. Literary works in many other languages began to be produced.

Nepali literature continued to modernise, and in recent years, has been strongly influenced by the post civil-war Nepali experience as well as global literary traditions.

Maruni , Lakhey , Sakela , Kauda and Tamang Selo are some examples of the traditional Nepali music and dance in the hilly regions of Nepal. Nepali film industry is known as "Kollywood".

Nepal Academy is the foremost institution for the promotion of arts and culture in Nepal, established in The most widely worn traditional dress in Nepal, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped.

It has been combined with an underskirt, or the petticoat , and tucked in the waistband for more secure fastening.

It is worn with a blouse , or cholo , which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end, passing over the shoulder, now serving to obscure the upper body's contours, and to cover the midriff.

In its more traditional form, as part of traditional dresses and as worn in daily life while performing household chores or labour, it takes the form of a fariya or gunyu , usually shorter than a sari in length as well as breadth, and all of it wrapped around the lower body.

For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti , has served as a lower-body garment. Dhoti or its variants, usually worn over a langauti , constitute the lower-body garment in the traditional clothing of Tharus, Gurungs and Magars as well as the Madhesi people, among others.

Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching or tailoring are the Patukas a length of cloth wrapped tightly over the waist by both sexes as a waistband, a part of most traditional Nepali costumes, usually with a Khukuri tucked into it when worn by men , scarves like Pachhyauras and majetros and shawls like the Newar Ga and Tibetan khata , Ghumtos the wedding veils and various kinds of turbans scarves worn around the head as a part of a tradition, or to keep off the sun or the cold, [] called a Pheta , Pagri or Sirpau.

Until the beginning of the first millennium CE, the ordinary dress of people in South Asia was entirely unstitched. Men continue to wear bhoto through adulthood.

Upper body garment for men is usually a vest such as the bhoto, or a shirt similar to the Kurta , such as Daura, a closed-necked double-breasted long shirt with five pleats and eight strings that serve to tie it around the body.

Suruwal, simply translated as a pair of trousers, is an alternative to and, more recently, replacement for dhoti, kachhad Magars or Lungi Tharus ; it is traditionally much wider above the knees but tapers below, to fit tightly at the ankles, and is tied to the waist with a drawstring.

Modern cholos worn with sarees are usually half-sleeved and single-breasted, and do not cover the midriff. The traditional one called the chaubandi cholo, like the daura, is full-sleeved, double-breasted with pleats and strings, and extends down to the patuka, covering the midriff.

Daura-Suruwal and Gunyu-Cholo were the national dresses for men and women respectively until when they were removed to eliminate favouritism.

For many other groups, men's traditional dresses consist of a shirt or a vest, paired with a dhoti, kachhad or lungi. In the high himalayas, the traditional dresses are largely influenced by Tibetan culture.

Sherpa women wear the chuba with the pangi apron, while Sherpa men wear shirts with stiff high collar and long sleeves called tetung under the chuba.

Tibetan Xamo Gyaise hats of the Sherpas, dhaka topi of pahari men and tamang round caps are among the more distinctive headwears.

Married Hindu women wear tika, sindur, pote and red bangles. Jewellery of gold and silver, and sometimes precious stones, are common. Gold jewellery includes Mangalsutras and tilaharis worn with the pote by the Hindus, Samyafung a huge gold flower worn on the head and Nessey huge flattened gold earrings worn by the Limbus, and Sirphuli, Sirbandhi and Chandra worn by the Magars.

Tharu women can wear as much as six kilograms of silver in jewellery, which includes Mangiya worn on the head, tikuli the forehead, and kanseri and tikahamala around the neck.

In the last 50 years, fashions have changed a great deal in Nepal. Increasingly, in urban settings, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, transformed instead into one for formal occasions.

The traditional kurta suruwal is rarely worn by younger women, who increasingly favour jeans. The dhoti has largely been reduced to the liturgical vestment of shamans and Hindu priests.

Nepali cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit.

Each became staples of use. Rice and wheat are mostly cultivated in the terai plains and well-irrigated valleys, and maize, millet, barley and buckwheat in the lesser fertile and drier hills.

The foundation of a typical Nepali meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavourful savoury dishes.

The unleavened flat bread made from wheat flour called chapati occasionally replaces the steamed rice, particularly in the Terai, while Dhindo, prepared by boiling corn, millet or buckwheat flour in water, continuously stirring and adding flour until thick, almost solid consistency is reached, is the main substitute in the hills and mountains.

Tsampa, flour made from roasted barley or naked barley, is the main staple in the high himalayas. Throughout Nepal, fermented, then sun-dried, leafy greens called Gundruk , are both a delicacy and a vital substitute for fresh vegetables in the winter.

A notable feature of Nepali food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents.

Nepali cuisines possess their own distinctive qualities to distinguish these hybrid cuisines from both their northern and southern neighbours. Kwanti sprouted beans soup , chhwela ground beef , chatamari , rice flour crepe , bara fried lentil cake , kachila marinated raw minced beef , samaybaji centred around flattened rice , lakhaamari and yomuri are among the more widely recognised.

Various communities in the Terai make sidhara sun-dried small fish mixed with taro leaves and biriya lentil paste mixed with taro leaves to stock for the monsoon floods.

Rice pulau or sweet rice porridge called kheer are usually the main dish in feasts. Almost all janajati communities have their own traditional methods of brewing alcohol.

Raksi traditional distilled alcohol , jaand rice beer , tongba millet beer and chyaang are the most well-known.

Nepali indigenous sports, like dandi biyo and kabaddi which were considered the unofficial national sports until recently, [] are still popular in rural areas.

Rubber bands , or ranger bands cut from tubes in bike tyres, make a multi-purpose sporting equipment for Nepali children, which may be bunched or chained together, and used to play dodgeball , cat's cradle , jianzi [] and a variety of skipping rope games.

Football and cricket are popular professional sports. The only international stadium in the country is the multi-purpose Dasarath Stadium where the men and women national football teams play their home matches.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Nepal disambiguation.

Country in South Asia. Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Area controlled by Nepal shown in dark green; regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green.

Main article: History of Nepal. Main article: Kingdom of Nepal. Clockwise from upper left: a Prithvi Narayan Shah b An map of the Indian subcontinent showing Nepal at its zenith c Balbhadra Kunwar , who, at age 25, commanded the defence of Nalapani fort against a superior British force, and after the enemy cutoff the water supply, charged out with 70 men d Jung Bahadur Rana , who established the autocratic Rana regime in and instituted a pro-British foreign policy.

Main articles: Geography of Nepal and Geology of Nepal. Main article: Wildlife of Nepal. See also: Protected areas of Nepal and Community forestry in Nepal.

Main article: Politics of Nepal. Main articles: Government of Nepal and Constitution of Nepal. Main article: Administrative divisions of Nepal. Province 2.

Province 1. Main article: Law enforcement in Nepal. Main article: Foreign relations of Nepal. Main article: Nepalese Army.

Main article: Economy of Nepal. Main article: Tourism in Nepal. Main article: Demographics of Nepal.

Main article: Languages of Nepal. Main article: Religion in Nepal. Main article: Education in Nepal. Main article: Health in Nepal. Main article: Culture of Nepal.

Main article: Architecture of Nepal. Clockwise from top-left: a Nyatapola , a five storied pagoda in Bhaktapur, bejewelled with characteristic stone, metal and wood craftsmanship, has survived at least four major earthquakes.

Main article: Nepalese cuisine. Main article: Sports in Nepal. Nepal portal. Consequently, Nepala translates to protected by Ne. As this issue has yet to be settled, the forest-type classification is generally preferred to the ecological categorization.

Retrieved 29 June Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Retrieved 16 July — via Nepal Law Commission. Retrieved 17 April The Rising Nepal.

The Himalayan Times. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 13 February Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal. The sixth point of the treaty directly questions the degree of independence of Nepal.

The fact that any differences between Nepal and Sikkim will be "referred to the arbitration of the East India Company" sees Nepal as a semi-independent or a vassal state or tributary of the British empire.

Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 15 April World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 16 April United Nations Development Programme.

Lexico Dictionaries English. Retrieved 23 July Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 5 December New Delhi: Pearson Longman.

Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 5 May New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House. History of Nepal: As told by its own and contemporary chroniclers.

Indische Alterthumskunde [ Indian Archaeology ]. Paris: Ernest Leroux. Glimpses of Nepal. Maha Devi. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 8 May Archived from the original on 11 November Page Calcutta: The Asiatic Society. Oxford University Press.

Quote: "Modern human beings— Homo sapiens —originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60, and 80, years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent.

It seems likely that initially they came by way of the coast. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin 22 May Coalescence dates for most non-European populations average to between 73—55 ka.

Cambridge University Press. Quote: "Scholars estimate that the first successful expansion of the Homo sapiens range beyond Africa and across the Arabian Peninsula occurred from as early as 80, years ago to as late as 40, years ago, although there may have been prior unsuccessful emigrations.

Some of their descendants extended the human range ever further in each generation, spreading into each habitable land they encountered.

One human channel was along the warm and productive coastal lands of the Persian Gulf and northern Indian Ocean. In Michael Petraglia; Bridget Allchin eds.

Springer Publishing. Kathmandu: Nepal Research Center. Retrieved 3 March A History of India. Delhi: Longman. Bhattarai Infobase publishing.

Journal of Human Genetics. The Ancient Settlements of the Kathmandu Valley. Office of the Nepal Antiquary. A Survey of Hinduism: Second Edition.

SUNY Press. Nepal: profile of a Himalayan kingdom. Westview Press. Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis.

Scarecrow Press. Princeton University Press. Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 17 December Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology.

Account of the Kingdom of Nepal. Asiatick Researches. London: Vernor and Hood. Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 26 June Archived from the original on 1 October Die nepalesische Regierung war an Waffen und Rüstungsgütern interessiert.

Februar brachte König Gyanendra wieder Bewegung ins politische Spiel. Premierminister Deuba und andere Regierungsmitglieder wurden unter Hausarrest gestellt.

Gyanendra beschuldigte Deuba, versagt zu haben, da er keine Einigung mit den Maoisten in Anbetracht der nächsten Wahlen erzielen konnte.

Deuba sagte, die Handlungen des Königs verletzten die Verfassung und seien gegen die Demokratie gerichtet. Einige Länder, darunter Deutschland und Frankreich, zogen kurzzeitig ihre Botschafter ab.

Ab dem 7. April herrschte im ganzen Land ein von der Allianz aller sieben im aufgelösten Parlament vertretenen Parteien ausgerufener und von weiten Teilen des Volkes getragener Generalstreik.

Nach mehr als zwei Wochen des Generalstreiks mit täglichen nepalweiten Demonstrationen von hunderttausenden Menschen mehrten sich die Zeichen, dass die Macht des Königs abnahm.

April bei einer Fernsehansprache an die Nation bekannt, dass die Exekutivgewalt von ihm nun wieder in die Hände des Volkes gelegt würde. Die Siebenparteienallianz wurde ausdrücklich ermächtigt, den nächsten Ministerpräsidenten zu bestimmen.

Diese lehnte das Angebot des Königs als zu wenig weitgehend ab: Sie forderte weiterhin die Wiedereinsetzung des aufgelösten Parlaments, die Einberufung einer verfassunggebenden Versammlung und die Einschränkung der absolutistischen Herrschaft des Königs und rief zu weiteren Massendemonstrationen auf.

April genötigt, in einer Fernsehansprache die unmittelbare Wiedereinsetzung des einstigen Parlamentes zu erklären.

Die Opposition erklärte daraufhin den Generalstreik für beendet. Mai beschloss das Parlament mit einer einstimmig angenommenen Resolution weitreichende Änderungen der staatlichen Ordnung: König Gyanendra verlor demnach den Oberbefehl über das Militär und nahm nur noch repräsentative Aufgaben wahr, konnte aber keinen Einfluss auf die Staatsgeschäfte mehr ausüben.

Weiterhin verlor er seine Immunität vor Strafverfolgung und musste fortan Steuern zahlen. Zuvor wurden mehrere Hundert inhaftierte Rebellen freigelassen, und eine Reformierung der Verfassung wurde in Aussicht gestellt.

Ziel war es, den seit zehn Jahren andauernden Bürgerkrieg zu beenden. November wurde die Vereinbarung zum Ende des zehnjährigen Bürgerkrieges durch Premierminister Koirala und Maoistenführer Prachanda unterzeichnet.

Dezember beschloss das Parlament die Abschaffung der Monarchie und der König verlor seine Funktion als Staatsoberhaupt. Premierminister Girija Prasad Koirala bekleidete dieses Amt interimsweise.

Dezember votierte das Übergangsparlament mit mehr als zwei Drittel der Abgeordnetenstimmen für einen Zusatz zur Übergangsverfassung, der de facto die Abschaffung der Monarchie bedeutete.

Eine Mehrheit von der Abgeordneten sprachen sich für eine föderale demokratische Republik als Staatsform aus. Eine formale Bestätigung der Entmachtung des Königs gab die verfassungsgebende Versammlung in ihrer konstituierenden Sitzung am Mai ab.

Mit überwältigender Mehrheit wurde von der Versammlung die Republik ausgerufen. April einen überraschenden Erdrutschsieg für die Maoisten ergeben, die aber die absolute Mehrheit verfehlten.

Mai wurde die Republik ausgerufen und Ram Baran Yadav wurde am Juli als erster Präsident der Republik vereidigt. Trotz wiederholter Verlängerungen ihrer zweijährigen Amtszeit konnte sich diese erste verfassungsgebende Versammlung nicht auf eine neue Verfassung einigen.

Die Wahlen zu einer zweiten verfassungsgebenden Versammlung fanden im November statt und wurde die neue Verfassung verabschiedet. September bis zu Neuwahlen die Rolle des regulären Parlaments ein.

Diese fanden dann am November und 7. Dezember statt. April ereignete sich 80 Kilometer nordwestlich der Hauptstadt Kathmandu ein Erdbeben.

Insgesamt starben mehr als Menschen. Mehr als ein Drittel der ca. Die weit verbreitete Korruption der Polizeibehörden und der Staatsverwaltung trägt dazu bei, dass die Bevölkerung kein Vertrauen in die bestehende Regierung setzt und keine Hilfe erwartet.

Die juristischen Mittel, wie das Zivilrecht von , das alle Formen von Diskriminierung — insbesondere der Kastendiskriminierung — unter Strafe stellt, greifen im Alltag nicht.

Die Weltbank und die Asiatische Entwicklungsbank übten schon mehrfach Druck auf die Regierung in Kathmandu aus, um Rechenschaft über die Ausgaben für Entwicklungsprogramme zur Armutslinderung zu erhalten, jedoch lange Zeit ohne Erfolg.

Die Einführung einer neuen Verfassung verzögerte sich noch bis zum 9. November ; erst massiver Druck aus mehreren Ländern, insbesondere Indien, welches seine Grenzen schloss, und Massendemonstrationen der zusammengeschlossenen Oppositionsparteien, bestehend aus einem Bündnis der Kommunistischen Partei Nepals und der Kongresspartei, zeigten Erfolg.

Die ersten demokratischen Wahlen fanden am Mai statt. Binnen kürzester Zeit war die neue politische Elite in den Augen der Bevölkerung allerdings noch korrupter als die alte Regierung.

König Birendra starb am 1. Juni bei einem von seinem Sohn, Kronprinz Dipendra , verübten Massaker offizielle Geschichtsschreibung.

Zugleich erschoss der Sohn auch seine Mutter, einige Geschwister und dann sich selbst. Ehe er nach drei Tagen seinen Verletzungen erlag, wurde er noch zum Nachfolger gekrönt.

König Birendra war, trotz seiner Widersprüchlichkeit, im Lande sehr beliebt gewesen. Die offiziellen Verlautbarungen zum Tathergang finden daher wenig Glauben, da auch zuvor bereits ganze Königsfamilien in Nepal ausradiert wurden.

Die Regierungskoalition, gebildet von der Sieben-Parteien-Allianz, einem Bündnis zentristischer und linksliberaler Parteien, und den Maoisten , einigte sich am Mit der Abstimmung im Parlament vom Die offizielle Ausrufung der Bundesrepublik erfolgte am Mai bei der konstituierenden Sitzung der Verfassungsgebenden Versammlung Nepals.

Mai von der Verfassungsgebenden Versammlung öffentlich bekanntgegeben werden. Dieser Termin konnte jedoch nicht eingehalten werden.

Danach wurde eine neue Verfassung für Ende Mai erwartet, [49] was erneut misslang und dazu führte, dass der am August gewählte [50] Premierminister Baburam Bhattarai für den November Neuwahlen ankündigte.

November abgehalten werden. November für den Norden des Landes und am 7. Dezember für den Süden des Landes fanden die ersten Wahlen zum Repräsentantenhaus , dem Unterhaus des Bundesparlament und zu den Provinzparlamenten, nach der Verabschiedung der neuen Verfassung im Jahr statt.

Nach den Wahlen zur ersten Nationalversammlung , dem Oberhaus des Bundesparlaments, am Februar sein Amt an.

In der Verfassunggebenden Versammlung Nepals waren 25 Parteien vertreten. Sie spaltete sich von den KP Nepals Einheitszentrum ab. Zweitstärkste Kraft ist die sozialdemokratische Nepalesische Kongresspartei mit Sitzen.

Sie wurde gegründet und war trotz etlicher Spaltungen bei allen Parlamentswahlen bis zur Abschaffung der Monarchie stärkste Partei.

Diese entstand aus einem Zusammenschluss zweier kommunistischer Parteien. In den er Jahren bildeten sie gemeinsam mit der Kongresspartei die Regierung.

Sie erhielten bei der Wahl 54 Sitze. Nepal verfolgt eine neutrale und ausgeglichene Diplomatie ohne feste Bündnispolitik.

Von diesen ist Indien der für Nepal mit Abstand wichtigste bilaterale Partner, da die wichtigsten Versorgungslinien und Verkehrswege des Landes nach Indien führen beziehungsweise über indisches Territorium verlaufen.

Beide Länder führen eine sehr enge Beziehung in wirtschaftlicher und sicherheitspolitischer Hinsicht.

Die Beziehungen zu Indien sind deshalb sehr eng, jedoch auch von einer gewissen Unausgeglichenheit geprägt. Um zu einem besseren Gleichgewicht zu kommen, intensiviert das Land die Beziehungen mit der Volksrepublik China, das eine zunehmende Rolle als bilateraler Geber von Entwicklungshilfe und Handelspartner einnimmt.

Dabei werden auch die grenzüberschreitenden Handelsrouten zunehmend ausgebaut, wobei es sogar Ideen für einen Tunnel unter dem Himalaya-Gebirge gibt, der beide Länder verbinden würde.

Bei den Beziehungen zu den westlichen Industrieländern spielt vor allem die entwicklungspolitische Zusammenarbeit eine dominierende Rolle. Die Diskriminierung und Ausbeutung von Minderheiten, unteren Kasten und Kastenlosen, Frauen und Kindern ist immer noch, trotz Schutz durch die Verfassung, weit verbreitet.

Für internationale Proteste — unter anderem durch amnesty international — sorgte in letzter Zeit das gewaltsame Vorgehen der nepalesischen Polizei gegen Schwule und Transvestiten.

Allein in Nepal werden jährlich etwa Sie landen im Sexgewerbe, meistens in indischen Bordellen. Die geltenden Bestimmungen hingegen untersagen die systematische Unterdrückung von Frauen: Am 3.

Nach der Frauenkonferenz in Peking von wurde das Ministerium Ministry of Women and Social Welfare gegründet, mit dem Ziel, die Teilhabe von Frauen an der nationalen Entwicklung zu unterstützen, [60] und am Nach Nepals neuer Verfassung kann die nepalesische Staatsbürgerschaft nur noch durch den Vater weitergegeben werden.

Dies hat insbesondere zur Folge, dass Kinder alleinerziehender nepalesischer Mütter staatenlos sind. Die vorangehende, ab geltende Übergangsverfassung hatte hingegen bestimmt, dass ein Kind die Staatsangehörigkeit ebenfalls durch die Mutter erhalten konnte; dies war jedoch, trotz eines im Jahr durch den Obersten Gerichtshof entschiedenen Präzedenzfalls, in der Praxis kaum umgesetzt worden.

Schätzungen zufolge waren Anfang insgesamt weit über 4 Millionen Personen in Nepal staatenlos, somit fast ein Viertel der erwachsenen Bevölkerung.

Bei der Rangliste der Pressefreiheit , welche von Reporter ohne Grenzen herausgegeben wird, belegte Nepal Platz von Ländern.

Seit der Verfassung von besteht Nepal aus sieben Provinzen, die die Rolle der Bundesstaaten innerhalb des föderalen Staates einnehmen.

Bis dahin war Nepal in 14 Verwaltungszonen aufgeteilt, die aus 75 Distrikten bestanden. Die Verwaltungszonen waren in fünf Entwicklungsregionen zusammengefasst.

Innerhalb der Provinzen lebt die bisherige Distriktstruktur weitestgehend weiter. Die Distrikte werden weiter in Gemeinden und Ortschaften untergliedert.

Kaufkraftbereinigt beträgt das BIP pro Kopf 2.

Journal of Human Genetics. The Black Chinese was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces, mansions and gardens of the Nepalese aristocracy. The literal meaning of Durbar Square is a "place of palaces. Crime and Punishment around the World.

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